Niko Balkenhol

Niko received degrees in Forest Ecology, Environmental Monitoring, and Wildlife Resources. His practical experiences include working for a private consulting company where he conducted environmental impact assessments for road construction projects. He was a postdoc at the Leibniz-Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (IZW) in Berlin before moving to the University of Goettingen in 2011, where he currently leads the Department of Wildlife Sciences. His research focuses on ecological connectivity, which he analyzes at different biological levels (from genes to ecosystems) and by combining movement ecology, landscape genetics, and simulation modeling. Many of his projects include an assessment of road effects on functional connectivity.

Plenary session: Molecular tools to assess the ecological impacts of transportation infrastructures

Molecular tools are increasingly used to address fundamental and applied questions in ecological and biological research. Here, I provide an overview of the various ways in which molecular data can help to assess and monitor the ecological effects of transportation infrastructures. I first provide a summary of our current understanding of genetic road effects and of our analytical abilities to detect such effects. Specifically, I show that genetic barrier effects are highly variable, trait- and context-dependent and that quantifying such effects is strongly affected by the spatial and temporal distribution of available data. I illustrate these points through simulation results and empirical studies from various wildlife species. Second, I call for an increased use of genetic data to monitor barrier mitigation measures, such as over- or underpasses. While several case studies have proven the usefulness of genetic data to evaluate the effectiveness of such mitigation measures, we need to apply molecular approaches more routinely in this context and over longer time scales. Third, I review how molecular tools can greatly increase our understanding of other ecological impacts of transportation infrastructures, i.e., impacts that go beyond a barrier effect on movement and gene flow. For example, non-invasive genetic sampling or environmental DNA (eDNA) can help to detect elusive species, thus providing novel opportunities to assess how transportation infrastructures affect the distribution and/or abundance of entire communities. Finally, I will highlight that transportation infrastructures might also have evolutionary consequences that are highly relevant for management and conservation.

Francisco Moreira

Biologist. Researcher at the CIBIO (Research Center on Biodiversity and Genetic Resources), University of Porto, Portugal. Principal investigator of the research group “Biodiversity in Agricultural and Forest Ecosystems”, and chair holder of the REN Invited Research Chair in Biodiversity. Member of the Board of the Society for Conservation Biology – Europe Section. Research interests include: (a) the links between farmland and forest management and biodiversity (b) fire ecology; and (c) the biodiversity impacts of anthropogenic linear infrastructures (focus on power lines, and how they impact, through disturbance, collision and electrocution, bird population dynamics).

Plenary session: Birds using (and abusing of) linear infrastructures: storks and power lines

Power lines are increasingly widespread across many regions of the planet. Although these linear infrastructures are known for their negative impacts on bird populations, through collision and electrocution, some species take advantage of electricity pylons for nesting. We compiled historical information (1958-2014) of the Portuguese white stork Ciconia ciconia population to analyze long-term changes in numbers, distribution range and use of nesting structures. White stork population size increased 660% between 1984 and 2014. In the same period, the proportion of nests on electricity pylons increased from 1 to 25%, likely facilitated by the 60% increase in the length of the very high tension power line grid (holding the majority of the nests) in the stork’s distribution range. The main drivers of pylon use by nesting storks were distance to major feeding areas (rice fields, landfills and large wetlands), with more intensive use closer to these features. We discuss the implications of this behavioral change, and of the management responses by power line companies, both for stork populations and for managers.

Nandini Velho

Nandini greatest passion is melding science with the insights of natural-resource managers and indigenous communities to achieve the sound governance of natural resources, especially forests. She have undertaken field work in remote forests of north-east India for the past eleven years (as an MSc. and PhD student, and then a post-doctoral fellow), where her research took up challenges at the juxtaposition of biology, economics, politics and sociology. Her work has been consciously interdisciplinary and tries to integrate diverse disciplinary threads into coherent and translational research for protected areas.

Plenary session: The Eaglenest Experience: road-expansion and conservation in a geopolitically important biodiversity hotspot

Arunachal Pradesh state in northeast India is a remote frontier area, sharing international borders with China, Bhutan and Myanmar. The state is a disputed territory also claimed by China, a border dispute that led to the Sino-Indian war of 1962. Because of its strategic geopolitical importance, the Indian government has recently accelerated investment in road building in Arunachal Pradesh wich spans parts of two Global Biodiversity Hotspots (Eastern Himalaya and Indo-Myanmar), and is among the most biodiverse areas in the world. The bird diversity of the region is second only to that in the Andes and a new bird species, the Bugun Liocichla (Liocichla bugunorum), was only recently discovered from the area around Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary. Arunachal Pradesh also accounts for a large percentage of India's primary forest cover, a majority of which is managed by tribal communities. In this presentation I will explore how a range of hunted species respond to different management systems and road networks around Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary and the adjoining areas managed by the community. I will also explore the perceptions of residents and experts towards conservation of the area with a focus on roads. I will talk about how historical, sociological and livelihood factors have determined trade-offs towards roads and conservation of Eaglenest Wildlfe Sanctuary and the adjacent Community Reserve.